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 polish institut 

 Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities (EJPAU) founded by all Polish Agriculture Universities presents original papers and review articles relevant to all aspects of agricultural sciences. It is target for persons working both in science and industry,regulatory agencies or teaching in agricultural sector. Covered by IFIS Publishing (Food Science and Technology Abstracts), ELSEVIER Science - Food Science and Technology Program, CAS USA (Chemical Abstracts), CABI Publishing UK and ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society Publisher - full membership). Presented in the Master List of Thomson ISI.
2008 V olume 11 - Issue 1 - Topic:
Animal Husbandry
ELECTRONIC JOURNAL OF POLISAGRICULTURAL  UNIVERSITIES
 
Chmiel K. , Gajewska A. , Sobczuk D. 2008. AN ESTIMATION OF BREEDING VALUE OF PUREBRED ARABIAN STALLIONS WITH REGARD TO CONFORMATION TRAITS JUDGED IN SHOWS IN THE YEARS 1985-2006, EJPAU 11(1), #17.
Available Online: http://www.ejpau.media.pl/volume11/issue1/art-17.html

AN ESTIMATION OF BREEDING VALUE OF PUREBRED ARABIAN STALLIONS WITH REGARD TO CONFORMATION TRAITS JUDGED IN SHOWS IN THE YEARS 1985-2006

Krystyna Chmiel1, Anna Gajewska1, Dorota Sobczuk2
1 Department of Animal Breeding and Use, Institute of Agricultural Science of Zamosc, Agricultural Academy of Lublin, Poland
2 Department of Animal Breeding and Use, Faculty of Agricultural Science, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland

 

ABSTRACT

The present study is based on a research conducted on 47 purebred Arabian stallions used in Polish breeding, which have been sires to 2416 heads of progeny participating in Polish National and Youth Arabian Horse Shows in the years 1985-2006, as well as in Falborek Arabian Horse Show organized in 2004 and 2005. The following indices were computed for the stallions under consideration: Relative Genetic Value (RGV), Index of a Stallion (I) and Breeding Value (WH). The following stallions were indicated as significant improvers of the Arabian horse population: Monogramm 1985 and Laheeb 1996, whereas the stallion Europejczyk 1982 proved a significant degrader, deteriorating the breeding progress.

Key words: Arabian horses, breeding value, conformation traits, stallions.

INTRODUCTION

 

Poland has been considered a world leader in breeding of Arabian horses for two centuries, notably because of the well-documented 200-year-old pedigrees of our horses, as well as their extremely high level of conformation and use traits: Pruski [8]. The high prices achieved at Janów Auction Sales fully confirm this statement. Polish horses have been winning international beauty shows for a long time, and for more than twenty years they have competed in Polish National Arabian Horse Shows at Janów Podlaski. Polish shows follow the rules of National Championships of other countries, as for example those organized by the International Arabian Horse Show Association (IAHA), existing in the US since 1950.

In Polish National and Youth Shows the following traits are evaluated: type, head and neck, body and topline, legs and movement (according to the Catalogues of the Polish National and Youth Arabian Horse Shows in the years 1985-2006) [5]. The Polish shows are organized in compliance with EAHSC (European Arabian Horse Show Commission) rules and their results are accepted in all countries running stud books approved by WAHO (World Arabian Horse Organization). In the breeding period under consideration, we noticed a distinct advantage of certain sires with regard to the point score for one specified trait or for all traits Budzyński and Chmiel [1] Kownacki [6], Maciejowski and Zięba [7]. Consequently, we decided to trace factors determining heritability of conformation traits highly valued in shows, with a view of comparing those factors.

Our first study embraced sires of youth taking part in shows in the years 1985-1995. On that basis, we computed indices of breeding value (RGV, I, WH) for those stallions. The aim of the present study is to continue the first analysis, that is to attempt an estimation of quality of progeny sired by stallions used in Poland between 1985 and 2006, comparing them with their peers, and focusing on the desirable traits judged in shows, with the use of comparable measures: Chmiel et al. [2], Gajewska [3].

MATERIAL AND METHODS

 

47 stallions used in Polish purebred Arabian horse breeding were tested, sires to at least 5 heads of progeny competing in the Polish National or Youth Shows in the years 1985-2006, as well as in Falborek Arabian Championship in the years 2004-2005 (data obtained from Judging Cards of Polish National in the years 1985-2006, Youth Arabian Horse Shows in the years 1985-2006 also Falborek Arabian Horse Show, organized in 2004 and 2005; Catalogues of the Polish National and Youth Arabian Horse Shows in the years 1985-2006) [4].

The comparison was conducted using the modified Robertson and Rendel Contemporary Comparison method for stallions Kownacki [6], based on the comparison of efficiency of progeny by a given producer with the efficiency of their peers. The above mentioned method enabled us to calculate the following indices:

 

1.

where:
RGV – Relative Genetic Value,
– average level of the trait for progeny,
– average level of the trait for peers,
– average value for the population,
h2 – coefficient of heritability of the trait,
b – coefficient of regression,
w – the effective number of progeny.

 

2.

where:
I – index for the stallion,
Dw – weighed mean deviation of the efficiency of progeny from the efficiency of peers.

 

3.

where:
WH – breeding value.

The values of RGV and I were given in percentage points, whereas WH (an actual advantage of progeny over its peers), was given in units of the absolute value of a trait.

RESULTS

 

47 stallions were selected, sires to 2416 heads of progeny subject to evaluation, which fulfilled assumed requirements. Numbers of their foal crops, shown in a given period, varied from 9 (Aslan 1998 and Avangard 1990) to 201 (Eukaliptus 1974).

As far as the trait “type” was concerned (Table 1), 21 stallions (44.68%) were determined as improvers (i.e. showed RGV and I >100%, WH >0.00). The highest RGV was achieved by Monogramm, chestnut 1985 (Negatraz – Monogramma), with his level reaching 1175.54%, but only a slightly lower value of that index (919.05%) was obtained by the Polish-bred stallion Eukaliptus, grey, 1974 (Bandos – Eunice). In terms of that trait, he outclassed the recently popular stallion Gazal Al Shaqab, bay, 1995 (Anaza El Farid – Kajora), whose RGV reached 892.89%. The highest level of the Stallion Index for that trait (I = 106.32%), as well as WH (advantage of the progeny over its peers), reaching the value of 0.57, was achieved by the stallion Laheeb, grey, 1996 (Imperial Imdal – AK Latifa). Second in that ranking was Monogramm 1985, with his index lower only by a fraction of percentage point and an equal value of WH. Similar point scores to their peers were shown by the youth sired by Magnum Psyche chestnut 1995 (Padrons Psyche – A Fancy Miracle) and Werbum, grey 1995 (Wojsław – Werda), whereas the worst type was shown by the progeny of Europejczyk, bay 1982 (El Paso – Europa), whose indices were as follows: RGV = -86.74; I = 95.45: WH = -0.42 point.

 

Table 1. Breeding value indicators (RGV, I, WH) of purebred Arabian stallions for the trait “type”, estimated in the Polish National and Youth Arabian Horse Shows in 1985-2006

No.

Stallion

Number
of progeny

Average score for progeny

Number of peers

Average score for peers

RGV

I

WH

1.

Alegro b. (Probat – Algeria) 1983

43

18.39

499

18.38

102.87

100.06

0.01

2.

Angor gr. (Alegro – Angola) 1992

11

17.73

310

18.11

87.21

98.83

-0.11

3.

Ararat gr. (Palas – Arra) 1985

60

18.16

1327

18.22

73.33

99.56

-0.04

4.

Arbil b. (Banat – Arba) 1981

42

18.41

849

18.21

154.39

101.30

0.12

5.

Ar-Rahman gr. (Aleppo – Arabella) 1990

16

17.27

583

18.15

44.30

96.50

-0.32

6.

Aslan b. (Eukaliptus – Algora) 1998

9

17.48

276

18.18

83.40

98.15

-0.17

7.

Avangard gr. (Vympel – Antenna) 1990

9

17.33

726

18.22

78.60

97.62

-0.22

8.

Balon gr. (Gwarny – Ballada) 1979

28

18.19

679

18.30

83.38

99.41

-0.05

9.

Banat b. (El Azrak – Bandola) 1967

28

18.31

282

18.63

53.16

98.35

-0.15

10.

Bandos gr. (Negatiw – Bandola) 1964

27

18.69

137

18.59

113.52

100.48

0.04

11.

Batyskaf gr. (Pamir – Bajeczka) 1990

36

17.56

387

18.16

-28.80

96.40

-0.33

12.

Borek br. (Fawor – Borowina) 1987

28

17.46

558

18.12

0.43

96.42

-0.32

13.

Ecaho gr. (Pepton – Etruria) 1990

73

18.42

1385

18.14

259.96

102.21

0.20

14.

Ekstern gr. (Monogramm – Ernestyna) 1994

134

18.47

688

18.12

511.92

103.10

0.28

15.

El Paso b. (Czort – Ellora) 1967

11

18.73

105

18.69

101.45

100.11

0.01

16.

Eldon gr. (Penitent – Erotyka) 1985

106

18.29

1532

18.23

154.43

100.52

0.05

17.

Emigrant gr. (Ararat – Emigrantka) 1991

126

18.11

1277

18.15

55.37

99.64

-0.03

18.

Empres b. (Monogramm – Empressa) 1995

11

17.88

333

18.17

90.23

99.11

-0.08

19.

Endel gr. (Palas – Elwira) 1981

19

17.68

150

18.09

67.53

98.28

-0.16

20.

Ernal gr. (Palas – Engracja) 1975

32

18.31

236

18.40

84.17

99.51

-0.05

21.

Etogram gr. (El Paso – Etruria) 1981

29

18.02

1105

18.18

74.22

99.11

-0.08

22.

Eukaliptus gr. (Bandos – Eunice) 1974

201

18.61

1546

18.18

919.05

104.10

0.37

23.

Europejczyk b. (El Paso – Europa) 1982

41

17.59

818

18.30

-86.74

95.45

-0.42

24.

Fawor br. (Probat – Fatma) 1981

80

18.26

1370

18.24

112.80

100.16

0.01

25.

Ganges b. (Monogramm – Garonna) 1994

61

18.13

633

18.19

73.13

99.56

-0.04

26.

Gazal Al. Shagab b. (Anaza El Farid – Kajora) 1995

134

18.72

257

18.01

892.89

106.00

0.54

27.

Grafik gr. (Eukaliptus – Gaskonia) 1996

17

18.06

466

18.21

89.55

99.39

-0.06

28.

Laheeb gr. (Imperial Imdal – AK Latifa) 1996

56

18.87

249

17.96

447.69

106.32

0.57

29.

Magnum Psyche ch. (Padrons Psyche – A Fancy Miracle) 1995

9

18.21

175

18.23


99.52


99.95


0.00

30.

Metropolis NA ch. (Consensus – NDL Martinique) 1996

25

18.28

458

18.20

110.07

100.41

0.04

31.

Monogramm ch. (Negatraz – Monogramma) 1985

177

18.61

543

17.94

1175.54

106.19

0.56

32.

Padrons Psyche ch. (Padron – Kilika) 1988

11

18.21

289

18.19

100.63

100.06

0.01

33.

Palas gr. (Aswan – Panel) 1968

129

18.57

639

18.45

235.04

101.03

0.10

34.

Pamir gr. (Probat – Parma) 1984

68

18.00

1299

18.15

21.61

98.84

-0.11

35.

Partner gr. (Eleuzis – Parma) 1970

49

18.37

794

18.41

86.70

99.73

-0.03

36.

Pepton gr. (Bandos – Pemba) 1977

37

18.04

910

18.32

36.17

98.28

-0.16

37.

Pers gr. (Enos – Pentoda) 1982

48

18.15

739

18.29

54.38

99.05

-0.09

38.

Pesal gr. (Partner – Perforacja) 1991

69

18.17

892

18.13

120.97

100.31

0.03

39.

Piaff gr. (Eldon – Pipi) 1997

21

18.41

254

18.14

125.55

101.23

0.11

40.

Piechur gr. (Banat – Pierzeja) 1979

21

18.67

68

18.34

127.95

101.32

0.12

41.

Pilot b. (Fawor – Pipi) 1987

19

18.25

304

18.16

107.30

100.39

0.04

42.

Probat b. (Pohaniec – Borexia) 1975

101

18.72

284

18.39

366.44

102.62

0.24

43.

Sanadik El Shaklan gr. (El Shaklan – Mohena) 1983

20

18.55

516

18.19

132.36

101.63

0.15

44.

Wachlarz br. (Arbil – Warsowia) 1990

49

17.93

1354

18.15

25.34

98.47

-0.14

45.

Werbum gr. (Wojsław – Werda) 1995

20

18.20

511

18.20

99.96

100.00

0.00

46.

Wermut b. (Probat – Warmia) 1982

26

18.05

757

18.32

63.39

98.59

-0.13

47.

Wojsław b. (Tallin – Wilejka) 1986

49

18.14

407

18.23

70.35

99.39

-0.06

Regarding the trait “head and neck” (Table 2), 19 stallions (40.42%) were classified as improvers. The highest Relative Genetic Value (RGV = 1335.65%) was achieved by the stallion Monogramm 1985 (Negatraz – Monogramma), who, at the same time, reached also the highest values of I (107.11%) and WH (0.63 points). The second place in that comparison was taken by the stallion Eukaliptus 1974. As degraders 27 stallions (57.45%) were qualified. Among them the poorest quality was shown by the progeny of Europejczyk 1982, whose RGV reached -70.48, I = 95.85, whereas WH = -0.38 point. One stallion, Eldon 1985, neither improved nor deteriorated the quality of progeny, as his indices were as follows: RGV = 99.98%, I = 100.0% and WH = 0.00 points.

 

Table 2. Breeding value indicators (RGV, I, WH) of purebred Arabian stallions for the trait “head and neck”, estimated in the Polish National and Youth Arabian Horse Shows in 1985-2006

No.

Stallion

Number
of progeny

Average score for progeny

Number of peers

Average score for peers

RGV

I

WH

1.

Alegro b. (Probat – Algeria) 1983

43

18.05

499

18.16

69.20

99.29

-0.06

2.

Angor gr. (Alegro – Angola) 1992

11

17.48

310

17.88

86.36

98.76

-0.11

3.

Ararat gr. (Palas – Arra) 1985

60

17.99

1327

18.02

86.50

99.78

-0.02

4.

Arbil b. (Banat – Arba) 1981

42

18.12

849

18.00

133.05

100.79

0.07

5.

Ar-Rahman gr. (Aleppo – Arabella) 1990

16

17.13

583

17.92

49.35

96.82

-0.29

6.

Aslan b. (Eukaliptus – Algora) 1998

9

17.37

276

18.05

83.71

98.19

-0.16

7.

Avangard gr. (Vympel – Antenna) 1990

9

17.11

726

18.02

77.85

97.54

-0.22

8.

Balon gr. (Gwarny – Ballada) 1979

28

18.08

679

18.11

95.46

99.84

-0.01

9.

Banat b. (El Azrak – Bandola) 1967

28

17.89

282

18.33

34.63

97.69

-0.21

10.

Bandos gr. (Negatiw – Bandola) 1964

27

18.59

137

18.36

131.20

101.13

0.10

11.

Batyskaf gr. (Pamir – Bajeczka) 1990

36

17.40

387

17.99

-28.22

96.43

-0.32

12.

Borek br. (Fawor – Borowina) 1987

28

17.26

558

17.90

2.22

96.48

-0.31

13.

Ecaho gr. (Pepton – Etruria) 1990

73

18.26

1385

17.94

285.19

102.55

0.23

14.

Ekstern gr. (Monogramm – Ernestyna) 1994

134

18.30

688

17.92

552.98

103.40

0.31

15.

El Paso b. (Czort – Ellora) 1967

11

18.63

105

18.38

108.23

100.72

0.07

16.

Eldon gr. (Penitent – Erotyka) 1985

106

18.02

1532

18.02

99.98

100.00

0.00

17.

Emigrant gr. (Ararat – Emigrantka) 1991

126

17.88

1277

17.95

21.06

99.37

-0.06

18.

Empres b. (Monogramm – Empressa) 1995

11

17.64

333

17.95

89.43

99.04

-0.09

19.

Endel gr. (Palas – Elwira) 1981

19

17.40

150

17.81

67.09

98.25

-0.16

20.

Ernal gr. (Palas – Engracja) 1975

32

17.98

236

18.11

76.74

99.27

-0.07

21.

Etogram gr. (El Paso – Etruria) 1981

29

17.84

1105

17.96

80.41

99.32

-0.06

22.

Eukaliptus gr. (Bandos – Eunice) 1974

201

18.36

1546

17.94

910.18

104.05

0.36

23.

Europejczyk b. (El Paso – Europa) 1982

41

17.42

818

18.06

-70.48

95.85

-0.38

24.

Fawor br. (Probat – Fatma) 1981

80

18.03

1370

18.02

106.48

100.08

0.01

25.

Ganges b. (Monogramm – Garonna) 1994

61

17.89

633

17.97

63.75

99.40

-0.05

26.

Gazal Al. Shagab b. (Anaza El Farid – Kajora) 1995

134

18.54

257

17.83

903.05

106.07

0.54

27.

Grafik gr. (Eukaliptus – Gaskonia) 1996

17

17.88

466

18.05

88.06

99.30

-0.06

28.

Laheeb gr. (Imperial Imdal – AK Latifa) 1996

56

18.68

249

17.71

475.34

106.83

0.61

29.

Magnum Psyche ch. (Padrons Psyche – A Fancy Miracle) 1995

9


18.00

175


18.09

97.89

99.76

-0.02

30.

Metropolis NA ch. (Consensus – NDL Martinique) 1996

25

18.15

458

18.04

114.09

100.56

0.05

31.

Monogramm ch. (Negatraz – Monogramma) 1985

177

18.49

543

17.73

1335.65

107.11

0.63

32.

Padrons Psyche ch. (Padron – Kilika) 1988

11

18.18

289

18.01

105.74

100.52

0.05

33.

Palas gr. (Aswan – Panel) 1968

129

18.24

639

18.15

202.54

100.79

0.07

34.

Pamir gr. (Probat – Parma) 1984

68

17.70

1299

17.94

-26.93

98.12

-0.17

35.

Partner gr. (Eleuzis – Parma) 1970

49

18.10

794

18.12

93.28

99.86

-0.01

36.

Pepton gr. (Bandos – Pemba) 1977

37

17.86

910

18.08

49.21

98.63

-0.12

37.

Pers gr. (Enos – Pentoda) 1982

48

17.93

739

18.08

50.51

98.97

-0.09

38.

Pesal gr. (Partner – Perforacja) 1991

69

17.98

892

17.93

126.62

100.39

0.03

39.

Piaff gr. (Eldon – Pipi) 1997

21

18.25

254

18.01

123.06

101.10

0.10

40.

Piechur gr. (Banat – Pierzeja) 1979

21

18.49

68

18.01

141.09

101.96

0.18

41.

Pilot b. (Fawor – Pipi) 1987

19

17.89

304

17.91

98.26

99.91

-0.01

42.

Probat b. (Pohaniec – Borexia) 1975

101

18.38

284

18.08

345.23

102.42

0.22

43.

Sanadik El Shaklan gr. (El Shaklan – Mohena) 1983

20

18.28

516

18.00

125.50

101.28

0.12

44.

Wachlarz br. (Arbil – Warsowia) 1990

49

17.71

1354

17.95

17.55

98.31

-0.15

45.

Werbum gr. (Wojsław – Werda) 1995

20

18.05

511

17.97

107.25

100.37

0.03

46.

Wermut b. (Probat – Warmia) 1982

26

17.72

757

18.08

50.54

98.10

-0.17

47.

Wojsław b. (Tallin – Wilejka) 1986

49

17.96

407

18.02

79.99

99.59

-0.04

The desired level of the trait “body and topline” (Table 3) was passed on by 32 stallions (44.68%). It was expressed to the most satisfying degree in the progeny of Monogramm 1985, whose RGV reached 658,41%. Next place was taken by the stallion Gazal Al Shaqab 1995 (Anaza El Farid – Kajora), who achieved the highest value of I (103.78%) and WH (0.33). In terms of that trait 26 stallions (55.32%) were classified as degraders. The lowest RGV (-65.80) with regard to that trait was obtained for the stallion Palas 1968 (Aswan – Panel), whereas the lowest I (97.16%) and WH (-0.25 points) were achieved by the stallion Batyskaf 1990 (Pamir – Bajeczka).

 

Table 3. Breeding value indicators (RGV, I, WH) of purebred Arabian stallions for the trait “body”, estimated in the Polish National and Youth Arabian Horse Shows in 1985-2006

No.

Stallion

Number
of progeny

Average score for progeny

Number of peers

Average score for peers

RGV

I

WH

1.

Alegro b. (Probat – Algeria) 1983

43

17.67

499

17.55

131.11

100.72

0.06

2.

Angor gr. (Alegro – Angola) 1992

11

17.03

310

17.37

90.10

99.10

-0.08

3.

Ararat gr. (Palas – Arra) 1985

60

17.39

1327

17.45

74.52

99.57

-0.04

4.

Arbil b. (Banat – Arba) 1981

42

17.67

849

17.41

166.06

101.59

0.14

5.

Ar-Rahman gr. (Aleppo – Arabella) 1990

16

17.06

583

17.45

78.20

98.63

-0.12

6.

Aslan b. (Eukaliptus – Algora) 1998

9

17.30

276

17.52

95.53

99.50

-0.04

7.

Avangard gr. (Vympel – Antenna) 1990

9

16.93

726

17.50

88.24

98.69

-0.11

8.

Balon gr. (Gwarny – Ballada) 1979

28

17.38

679

17.48

86.17

99.51

-0.04

9.

Banat b. (El Azrak – Bandola) 1967

28

17.83

282

17.98

80.17

99.30

-0.06

10.

Bandos gr. (Negatiw – Bandola) 1964

27

17.99

137

18.03

95.45

99.83

-0.02

11.

Batyskaf gr. (Pamir – Bajeczka) 1990

36

16.84

387

17.35

-1.12

97.16

-0.25

12.

Borek br. (Fawor – Borowina) 1987

28

16.99

558

17.27

61.41

98.61

-0.12

13.

Ecaho gr. (Pepton – Etruria) 1990

73

17.44

1385

17.43

105.43

100.08

0.01

14.

Ekstern gr. (Monogramm – Ernestyna) 1994

134

17.65

688

17.44

344.00

101.83

0.16

15.

El Paso b. (Czort – Ellora) 1967

11

18.33

105

18.10

106.50

100.56

0.05

16.

Eldon gr. (Penitent – Erotyka) 1985

106

17.42

1532

17.48

46.47

99.49

-0.04

17.

Emigrant gr. (Ararat – Emigrantka) 1991

126

17.50

1277

17.44

165.84

100.53

0.05

18.

Empres b. (Monogramm – Empressa) 1995

11

17.36

333

17.47

96.79

99.71

-0.03

19.

Endel gr. (Palas – Elwira) 1981

19

17.07

150

17.32

82.42

99.07

-0.08

20.

Ernal gr. (Palas – Engracja) 1975

32

17.52

236

17.79

56.43

98.65

-0.12

21.

Etogram gr. (El Paso – Etruria) 1981

29

17.23

1105

17.39

76.41

99.18

-0.07

22.

Eukaliptus gr. (Bandos – Eunice) 1974

201

17.69

1546

17.44

578.13

102.39

0.21

23.

Europejczyk b. (El Paso – Europa) 1982

41

17.11

818

17.44

18.94

98.01

-0.17

24.

Fawor br. (Probat – Fatma) 1981

80

17.55

1370

17.47

149.69

100.62

0.05

25.

Ganges b. (Monogramm – Garonna) 1994

61

17.47

633

17.51

82.96

99.72

-0.02

26.

Gazal Al. Shagab b. (Anaza El Farid – Kajora) 1995

134

17.82

257

17.36

601.63

103.78

0.33

27.

Grafik gr. (Eukaliptus – Gaskonia) 1996

17

17.47

466

17.52

96.92

99.82

-0.02

28.

Laheeb gr. (Imperial Imdal – AK Latia) 1996

56

17.90

249

17.41

276.44

103.17

0.28

29.

Magnum Psyche ch. (Padrons Psyche – A Fancy Miracle) 1995

9

17.79

175

17.51

105.60

100.62

0.05

30.

Metropolis NA ch. (Consensus – NDL Martinique) 1996

25

17.44

458

17.52

90.84

99.63

-0.03

31.

Monogramm ch. (Negatraz – Monogramma) 1985

177

17.53

543

17.18

658.41

103.22

0.28

32.

Padrons Psyche ch. (Padron – Kilika) 1988

11

17.33

289

17.52

94.50

99.50

-0.04

33.

Palas gr. (Aswan – Panel) 1968

129

17.65

639

17.80

-65.80

98.73

-0.11

34.

Pamir gr. (Probat – Parma) 1984

68

17.47

1299

17.36

155.02

100.82

0.07

35.

Partner gr. (Eleuzis – Parma) 1970

49

17.70

794

17.63

122.23

100.45

0.04

36.

Pepton gr. (Bandos – Pemba) 1977

37

17.56

910

17.50

112.68

100.34

0.03

37.

Pers gr. (Enos – Pentoda) 1982

48

17.40

739

17.41

96.85

99.94

-0.01

38.

Pesal gr. (Partner – Perforacja) 1991

69

17.26

892

17.42

18.76

98.82

-0.10

39.

Piaff gr. (Eldon – Pipi) 1997

21

17.81

254

17.49

127.14

101.30

0.11

40.

Piechur gr. (Banat – Pierzeja) 1979

21

17.89

68

17.60

121.71

101.03

0.09

41.

Pilot b. (Fawor – Pipi) 1987

19

17.74

304

17.54

114.56

100.77

0.07

42.

Probat b. (Pohaniec – Borexia) 1975

101

18.10

284

17.70

412.71

103.06

0.27

43.

Sanadik El Shaklan gr. (El Shaklan – Mohena) 1983

20

17.65

516

17.46

115.25

100.77

0.07

44.

Wachlarz br. (Arbil – Warsowia) 1990

49

17.44

1354

17.45

96.74

99.93

-0.01

45.

Werbum gr. (Wojsław – Werda) 1995

20

17.30

511

17.55

79.90

99.00

-0.09

46.

Wermut b. (Probat – Warmia) 1982

26

17.56

757

17.46

112.29

100.48

0.04

47.

Wojsław b. (Tallin – Wilejka) 1986

49

17.35

407

17.44

72.12

99.43

-0.05

Regarding the trait “legs” (Table 4), 24 stallions (51.06%) were defined as improvers. The highest indices of breeding value for that trait were revealed by the stallion Eukaliptus, grey, 1974 (Bandos – Eunice), whose RGV was 702.19%, I = 98.27% and WH = 0.25 point. As far as RGV was concerned, that stallion achieved the highest advantage over other Polish leading sires in terms of the trait “legs”. As degraders 22 stallions were determined, among whom the poorest results were obtained by the stallion Europejczyk, bay, 1982, whose RGV amounted to 28.85%, I = 98.27% and WH = -0,14. The stallion Ekstern, grey, 1994 (Monogramm – Ernestyna), exerted no influence upon the level of that trait, because his indices resulted as follows: RGV = 99.57%, I = 100.00%, WH = 0.00.

 

Table 4. Breeding value indicators (RGV, I, WH) of purebred Arabian stallions for the trait “legs”, estimated in the Polish National and Youth Arabian Horse Shows in 1985-2006

No.

Stallion

Number
of progeny

Average score for progeny

Number of peers

Average score for peers

RGV

I

WH

1.

Alegro b. (Probat – Algeria) 1983

43

16.66

499

16.63

108.87

100.20

0.02

2.

Angor gr. (Alegro – Angola) 1992

11

15.85

310

15.94

96.85

99.72

-0.02

3.

Ararat gr. (Palas – Arra) 1985

60

16.18

1327

16.23

76.43

99.61

-0.03

4.

Arbil b. (Banat – Arba) 1981

42

16.56

849

16.34

162.37

101.49

0.12

5.

Ar-Rahman gr. (Aleppo – Arabella) 1990

16

15.92

583

16.01

94.11

99.63

-0.03

6.

Aslan b. (Eukaliptus – Algora) 1998

9

15.89

276

16.03

96.62

99.63

-0.03

7.

Avangard gr. (Vympel – Antenna) 1990

9

15.96

726

16.05

97.76

99.76

-0.02

8.

Balon gr. (Gwarny – Ballada) 1979

28

16.68

679

16.41

141.93

101.49

0.12

9.

Banat b. (El Azrak – Bandola) 1967

28

17.31

282

17.29

103.60

100.10

0.01

10.

Bandos gr. (Negatiw – Bandola) 1964

27

17.54

137

17.37

123.63

100.80

0.07

11.

Batyskaf gr. (Pamir – Bajeczka) 1990

36

15.99

387

16.14

66.55

99.06

-0.08

12.

Borek br. (Fawor – Borowina) 1987

28

15.94

558

16.02

87.40

99.55

-0.04

13.

Ecaho gr. (Pepton – Etruria) 1990

73

16.09

1385

16.05

123.99

100.34

0.03

14.

Ekstern gr. (Monogramm – Ernestyna) 1994

134

16.00

688

16.00

99.57

100.00

0.00

15.

El Paso b. (Czort – Ellora) 1967

11

17.67

105

17.46

107.01

100.57

0.05

16.

Eldon gr. (Penitent – Erotyka) 1985

106

16.26

1532

16.21

148.61

100.47

0.04

17.

Emigrant gr. (Ararat – Emigrantka) 1991

126

16.00

1277

16.01

87.58

99.90

-0.01

18.

Empres b. (Monogramm – Empressa) 1995

11

16.03

333

15.97

101.85

100.19

0.01

19.

Endel gr. (Palas – Elwira) 1981

19

16.00

150

15.89

108.50

100.47

0.04

20.

Ernal gr. (Palas – Engracja) 1975

32

16.91

236

16.98

87.67

99.62

-0.03

21.

Etogram gr. (El Paso – Etruria) 1981

29

16.07

1105

16.14

88.28

99.60

-0.03

22.

Eukaliptus gr. (Bandos – Eunice) 1974

201

16.62

1546

16.33

702.19

103.01

0.25

23.

Europejczyk b. (El Paso – Europa) 1982

41

16.18

818

16.44

28.85

98.27

-0.14

24.

Fawor br. (Probat – Fatma) 1981

80

16.37

1370

16.25

181.96

101.03

0.08

25.

Ganges b. (Monogramm – Garonna) 1994

61

16.04

633

16.01

113.79

100.24

0.02

26.

Gazal Al. Shagab b. (Anaza El Farid – Kajora) 1995

134

16.28

257

16.03

398.82

102.28

0.18

27.

Grafik gr. (Eukaliptus – Gaskonia) 1996

17

15.96

466

16.06

92.86

99.58

-0.03

28.

Laheeb gr. (Imperial Imdal – AK Latifa) 1996

56

16.27

249

15.93

235.79

102.50

0.20

29.

Magnum Psyche ch. (Padrons Psyche – A Fancy Miracle) 1995

9

16.08

175

16.15

98.32

99.82

-0.01

30.

Metropolis NA ch. (Consensus – NDL Martinique) 1996

25

16.27

458

16.04

129.49

101.21

0.10

31.

Monogramm ch. (Negatraz – Monogramma) 1985

177

16.24

543

16.05

430.17

101.91

0.15

32.

Padrons Psyche ch. (Padron – Kilika) 1988

11

15.91

289

16.00

96.88

99.72

-0.02

33.

Palas gr. (Aswan – Panel) 1968

129

16.98

639

17.00

76.49

99.82

-0.02

34.

Pamir gr. (Probat – Parma) 1984

68

16.15

1299

16.14

105.30

100.08

0.01

35.

Partner gr. (Eleuzis – Parma) 1970

49

16.91

794

16.76

153.10

101.05

0.09

36.

Pepton gr. (Bandos – Pemba) 1977

37

16.67

910

16.57

123.81

100.63

0.05

37.

Pers gr. (Enos – Pentoda) 1982

48

16.54

739

16.42

140.99

100.85

0.07

38.

Pesal gr. (Partner – Perforacja) 1991

69

15.93

892

16.02

49.26

99.25

-0.06

39.

Piaff gr. (Eldon – Pipi) 1997

21

15.92

254

16.04

88.28

99.44

-0.04

40.

Piechur gr. (Banat – Pierzeja) 1979

21

16.60

68

16.71

90.81

99.56

-0.04

41.

Pilot b. (Fawor – Pipi) 1987

19

15.91

304

15.97

94.83

99.73

-0.02

42.

Probat b. (Pohaniec – Borexia) 1975

101

17.22

284

16.92

358.55

102.47

0.21

43.

Sanadik El Shaklan gr. (El Shaklan – Mohena) 1983

20

16.30

516

16.08

119.89

101.02

0.08

44.

Wachlarz br. (Arbil – Warsowia) 1990

49

15.95

1354

16.01

78.36

99.55

-0.04

45.

Werbum gr. (Wojsław – Werda) 1995

20

15.98

511

16.01

97.06

99.86

-0.01

46.

Wermut b. (Probat – Warmia) 1982

26

16.44

757

16.52

88.98

99.58

-0.03

47.

Wojsław b. (Tallin – Wilejka) 1986

49

16.31

407

16.21

134.26

100.71

0.06

Within the scope of the trait “movement” (Table 5), 22 stallions (46.81%) were determined as improvers. The highest level of the Relative Genetic Value was achieved by the stallion Monogramm 1985 (RGV = 984.52%), whereas the highest index and actual advantage of the progeny over its peers were revealed by the stallion Laheeb, grey, 1996 (I = 105.61 and WH = 0.50). Two stallions (4.26%) sired an offspring with identical indices as their peers. As degraders 23 stallions (48.93%) were defined. The lowest level of RGV (-60.29) was scored by the stallion Emigrant, grey, 1991 (Ararat – Emigrantka), whereas the lowest values of two remaining indices (I = 96.67% and WH = -0.30), belonged to the stallion Batyskaf, grey, 1990.

 

Table 5. Breeding value indicators (RGV, I, WH) of purebred Arabian stallions for the trait “movement”, estimated in the Polish National and Youth Arabian Horse Shows in 1985-2006

No.

Stallion

Number
of progeny

Average score for progeny

Number of peers

Average score for peers

RGV

I

WH

1.

Alegro b. (Probat – Algeria) 1983

43

18.04

499

18.12

79.90

99.53

-0.04

2.

Angor gr. (Alegro – Angola) 1992

11

17.79

310

17.88

97.42

99.77

-0.02

3.

Ararat gr. (Palas – Arra) 1985

60

17.94

1327

18.01

71.16

99.52

-0.04

4.

Arbil b. (Banat – Arba) 1981

42

18.30

849

18.00

174.18

101.77

0.16

5.

Ar-Rahman gr. (Aleppo – Arabella) 1990

16

17.21

583

17.95

59.82

97.48

-0.23

6.

Aslan b. (Eukaliptus – Algora) 1998

9

17.56

276

18.09

89.55

98.84

-0.10

7.

Avangard gr. (Vympel – Antenna) 1990

9

17.30

726

18.03

85.36

98.37

-0.15

8.

Balon gr. (Gwarny – Ballada) 1979

28

17.70

679

18.17

37.02

97.77

-0.20

9.

Banat b. (El Azrak – Bandola) 1967

28

17.77

282

18.21

42.87

97.98

-0.18

10.

Bandos gr. (Negatiw – Bandola) 1964

27

18.00

137

18.29

66.30

98.77

-0.11

11.

Batyskaf gr. (Pamir – Bajeczka) 1990

36

17.36

387

17.98

-19.42

96.67

-0.30

12.

Borek br. (Fawor – Borowina) 1987

28

17.36

558

17.95

21.19

97.17

-0.25

13.

Ecaho gr. (Pepton – Etruria) 1990

73

17.89

1385

17.98

51.69

99.34

-0.06

14.

Ekstern gr. (Monogramm – Ernestyna) 1994

134

18.29

688

17.98

450.28

102.62

0.24

15.

El Paso b. (Czort – Ellora) 1967

11

18.83

105

18.37

112.42

101.10

0.10

16.

Eldon gr. (Penitent – Erotyka) 1985

106

18.07

1532

18.04

126.01

100.25

0.02

17.

Emigrant gr. (Ararat – Emigrantka) 1991

126

17.83

1277

17.98

-60.29

98.72

-0.11

18.

Empres b. (Monogramm – Empressa) 1995

11

17.64

333

17.94

91.50

99.23

-0.07

19.

Endel gr. (Palas – Elwira) 1981

19

17.61

150

17.94

77.51

98.81

-0.11

20.

Ernal gr. (Palas – Engracja) 1975

32

18.22

236

18.06

125.20

100.79

0.07

21.

Etogram gr. (El Paso – Etruria) 1981

29

17.82

1105

17.99

75.69

99.16

-0.08

22.

Eukaliptus gr. (Bandos – Eunice) 1974

201

18.16

1546

17.96

471.90

101.86

0.17

23.

Europejczyk b. (El Paso – Europa) 1982

41

17.53

818

18.05

-24.08

96.98

-0.27

24.

Fawor br. (Probat – Fatma) 1981

80

18.20

1370

18.05

190.70

101.13

0.10

25.

Ganges b. (Monogramm – Garonna) 1994

61

18.08

633

17.95

153.72

100.89

0.08

26.

Gazal Al. Shagab b. (Anaza El Farid – Kajora) 1995

134

18.53

257

17.89

778.65

105.11

0.46

27.

Grafik gr. (Eukaliptus – Gaskonia) 1996

17

17.69

466

18.07

77.31

98.67

-0.12

28.

Laheeb gr. (Imperial Imdal – AK Latifa) 1996

56

18.57

249

17.69

407.99

105.61

0.50

29.

Magnum Psyche ch. (Padrons Psyche – A Fancy Miracle) 1995

9

18.21

175

18.18

100.62

100.06

0.01

30.

Metropolis NA ch. (Consensus – NDL Martinique) 1996

25

18.28

458

18.05

125.61

101.02

0.09

31.

Monogramm ch. (Negatraz – Monogramma) 1985

177

18.36

543

17.79

984.52

105.07

0.45

32.

Padrons Psyche ch. (Padron – Kilika) 1988

11

17.97

289

17.99

99.43

99.95

0.00

33.

Palas gr. (Aswan – Panel) 1968

129

18.20

639

18.10

207.70

100.83

0.08

34.

Pamir gr. (Probat – Parma) 1984

68

17.91

1299

17.94

85.30

99.78

-0.02

35.

Partner gr. (Eleuzis – Parma) 1970

49

18.16

794

18.11

115.44

100.31

0.03

36.

Pepton gr. (Bandos – Pemba) 1977

37

17.53

910

18.09

-15.19

96.90

-0.28

37.

Pers gr. (Enos – Pentoda) 1982

48

18.50

739

18.05

234.27

102.79

0.25

38.

Pesal gr. (Partner – Perforacja) 1991

69

17.85

892

17.97

40.78

99.14

-0.08

39.

Piaff gr. (Eldon – Pipi) 1997

21

18.30

254

18.05

120.64

100.98

0.09

40.

Piechur gr. (Banat – Pierzeja) 1979

21

18.37

68

18.01

126.17

101.25

0.11

41.

Pilot b. (Fawor – Pipi) 1987

19

18.05

304

17.97

105.64

100.30

0.03

42.

Probat b. (Pohaniec – Borexia) 1975

101

18.21

284

18.06

213.99

101.13

0.10

43.

Sanadik El Shaklan gr. (El Shaklan – Mohena) 1983

20

18.18

516

18.04

110.95

100.55

0.05

44.

Wachlarz br. (Arbil – Warsowia) 1990

49

17.72

1354

17.97

22.21

98.41

-0.14

45.

Werbum gr. (Wojsław – Werda) 1995

20

18.03

511

18.00

102.33

100.12

0.01

46.

Wermut b. (Probat – Warmia) 1982

26

17.87

757

18.08

74.86

99.03

-0.09

47.

Wojsław b. (Tallin – Wilejka) 1986

49

17.97

407

18.04

78.97

99.57

-0.04

In the general ranking of Polish leading sires with regard to all judged traits (Table 6), 21 stallions (44.68%) were determined as significant improvers. The highest Relative Genetic Value (929.53%) was achieved by the stallion Monogramm 1985, whereas the highest Index of a Stallion (I = 105.02%) and Breeding Value (WH = 2.17 points) belonged to the stallion Laheeb, grey, 1996. 26 stallions (55.32%) from the tested group deteriorated total point scores of their progeny. Among them, the decidedly poorest indices were scored by the stallion Europejczyk 1982 (RGV = -29.17; I = 96.85; WH = -1.39).

 

Table 6. Breeding value indicators (RGV, I, WH) of purebred Arabian stallions for the total score in the Polish National and Youth Arabian Horse Shows in 1985-2006

No.

Stallion

Number
of progeny

Average score for progeny

Number of peers

Average score for peers

RGV

I

WH

1.

Alegro b. (Probat – Algeria) 1983

43

88.80

499

88.83

98.43

99.96

-0.02

2.

Angor gr. (Alegro – Angola) 1992

11

85.88

310

87.18

91.39

99.22

-0.34

3.

Ararat gr. (Palas – Arra) 1985

60

87.66

1327

87.92

76.65

99.61

-0.17

4.

Arbil b. (Banat – Arba) 1981

42

89.06

849

87.96

160.00

101.43

0.63

5.

Ar-Rahman gr. (Aleppo – Arabella) 1990

16

84.58

583

87.48

63.80

97.72

-1.00

6.

Aslan b. (Eukaliptus – Algora) 1998

9

85.59

276

87.88

89.40

98.82

-0.52

7.

Avangard gr. (Vympel – Antenna) 1990

9

84.63

726

87.83

84.96

98.32

-0.74

8.

Balon gr. (Gwarny – Ballada) 1979

28

88.04

679

88.46

87.38

99.55

-0.20

9.

Banat b. (El Azrak – Bandola) 1967

28

88.12

282

90.43

32.70

97.64

-1.07

10.

Bandos gr. (Negatiw – Bandola) 1964

27

91.14

137

90.74

110.87

100.38

0.17

11.

Batyskaf gr. (Pamir – Bajeczka) 1990

36

85.15

387

87.62

-5.96

97.04

-1.30

12.

Borek br. (Fawor – Borowina) 1987

28

85.00

558

87.26

32.10

97.55

-1.07

13.

Ecaho gr. (Pepton – Etruria) 1990

73

88.09

1385

87.53

164.68

100.90

0.39

14.

Ekstern gr. (Monogramm – Ernestyna) 1994

134

88.70

688

87.45

399.83

102.26

0.99

15.

El Paso b. (Czort – Ellora) 1967

11

92.19

105

91.00

107.64

100.66

0.30

16.

Eldon gr. (Penitent – Erotyka) 1985

106

88.06

1532

87.97

116.57

100.16

0.07

17.

Emigrant gr. (Ararat – Emigrantka) 1991

126

87.32

1277

87.53

52.22

99.62

-0.17

18.

Empres b. (Monogramm – Empressa) 1995

11

86.55

333

87.50

93.70

99.43

-0.25

19.

Endel gr. (Palas – Elwira) 1981

19

85.77

150

87.04

80.09

98.94

-0.46

20.

Ernal gr. (Palas – Engracja) 1975

32

88.94

236

89.33

86.40

99.58

-0.19

21.

Etogram gr. (El Paso – Etruria) 1981

29

86.98

1105

87.64

78.79

99.27

-0.32

22.

Eukaliptus gr. (Bandos – Eunice) 1974

201

89.44

1546

87.86

716.52

103.08

1.35

23.

Europejczyk b. (El Paso – Europa) 1982

41

85.83

818

88.28

-29.17

96.85

-1.39

24.

Fawor br. (Probat – Fatma) 1981

80

88.42

1370

88.03

150.69

100.64

0.28

25.

Ganges b. (Monogramm – Garonna) 1994

61

87.61

633

87.62

98.98

99.99

-0.01

26.

Gazal Al. Shagab b. (Anaza El Farid – Kajora) 1995

134

89.88

257

87.13

723.99

104.72

2.06

27.

Grafik gr. (Eukaliptus – Gaskonia) 1996

17

87.06

466

87.91

88.33

99.31

-0.30

28.

Laheeb gr. (Imperial Imdal – AK Latifa) 1996

56

90.29

249

86.70

375.69

105.02

2.17

29.

Magnum Psyche ch. (Padrons Psyche – A Fancy Miracle) 1995

9

88.29

175

88.16

100.59

100.07

0.03

30.

Metropolis NA ch. (Consensus – NDL Martinique) 1996

25

88.41

458

87.85

114.02

100.57

0.25

31.

Monogramm ch. (Negatraz – Monogramma) 1985

177

89.22

543

86.69

929.53

104.77

2.07

32.

Padrons Psyche ch. (Padron – Kilika) 1988

11

87.61

289

87.71

99.30

99.94

-0.03

33.

Palas gr. (Aswan – Panel) 1968

129

89.65

639

89.49

136.91

100.28

0.13

34.

Pamir gr. (Probat – Parma) 1984

68

87.23

1299

87.52

69.26

99.55

-0.20

35.

Partner gr. (Eleuzis – Parma) 1970

49

89.23

794

89.03

113.64

100.27

0.12

36.

Pepton gr. (Bandos – Pemba) 1977

37

87.65

910

88.55

58.97

98.89

-0.49

37.

Pers gr. (Enos – Pentoda) 1982

48

88.51

739

88.25

117.04

100.35

0.16

38.

Pesal gr. (Partner – Perforacja) 1991

69

87.18

892

87.47

68.88

99.55

-0.20

39.

Piaff gr. (Eldon – Pipi) 1997

21

88.70

254

87.73

118.16

100.87

0.38

40.

Piechur gr. (Banat – Pierzeja) 1979

21

90.02

68

88.68

122.38

101.06

0.47

41.

Pilot b. (Fawor – Pipi) 1987

19

87.84

304

87.54

104.77

100.26

0.11

42.

Probat b. (Pohaniec – Borexia) 1975

101

90.63

284

89.19

335.73

102.31

1.03

43.

Sanadik El Shaklan gr. (El Shaklan – Mohena) 1983

20

88.97

516

87.78

121.13

101.06

0.47

44.

Wachlarz br. (Arbil – Warsowia) 1990

49

86.75

1354

87.53

46.71

98.91

-0.48

45.

Werbum gr. (Wojsław – Werda) 1995

20

87.57

511

87.73

97.09

99.86

-0.06

46.

Wermut b. (Probat – Warmia) 1982

26

87.62

757

88.46

77.37

99.13

-0.38

47.

Wojsław b. (Tallin – Wilejka) 1986

49

87.71

407

87.93

85.41

99.70

-0.13

 

DISCUSSION

 

Among the tested producers – sires to crops of progeny taking part in shows – certain groups were distinguished as significant improvers of the population in terms of specified traits. At the same time, significant degraders were also pointed out, which deteriorated the breeding progress with regard to conformation traits. Additionally, sires who neither improved, nor deteriorated the quality of progeny in comparison to their peers were indicated. There was also a great dispersion of breeding value of specified stallions, especially expressed by the level of RGV, varying from 1335.65 (Monogramm 1985, for the trait “head and neck”) to -86.74 (Europejczyk 1982, for the trait “type”).

Within the scope of the trait “body and topline”, the highest level of the index RGV was also scored by the stallion Monogramm 1985, whereas in I and BV the stallion Gazal Al Shagab 1995.

The trait “legs” in the progeny was improved to the highest degree by the stallion Eukaliptus 1974, who achieved the highest values of RGV, I and WH.

The stallions Monogramm 1985 (RGV = 984.52%) and Laheeb 1996 (I = 105.61% and WH = 0.50) proved to be the best improvers of the trait “movement”. On the other hand, the Polish Derby-winner and Polish National Champion Stallion, Europejczyk 1982, proved as a significant degrader, deteriorating the breeding progress with regard to all judged traits, especially “type”, “legs” and total point scores.

In summary, we can state that among all stallions, whose breeding value in the light of conformation traits was evaluated, the best indices were achieved by the stallions Monogramm 1985, Laheeb 1996, and from the Polish-bred ones – Eukaliptus 1974, whereas the stallion Europejczyk 1982 caused a distinct decrease of the breeding progress. Additionally, specific predispositions of certain stallions for passing on specified traits were also observed.

CONCLUSIONS

 

That’s why no wonder, that the stallions with the highest individual prepotency for show features are so widely used. The advantage of progeny sired by certain producers is clearly visible and statistically proved.

REFERENCES

 

    • Budzyński M., Chmiel K., 1989. Powtarzalność i zmienność ocen eksterieru koni czystej krwi arabskiej [Repeatability and Variability of Point Scores for Conformation of Purebred Arabian Horses]. Ann. UMCS, Sec. EE, 7(8), 67-74 [in Polish].

    • Chmiel K., Gajewska A., Sobczuk D., 2002. Ocena wartości hodowlanej ogierów czołowych czystej krwi arabskiej pod względem cech pokrojowych [An Estimation of Breeding Value of Purebred Arabian Leading Sires with Regard to Conformation]. Rocz. Nauk. Zootech. 29(1), 7-17 [in Polish].

    • Gajewska A., 2003. Ocena wpływu czynników genetycznych i pozagenetycznych na poziom cech pokrojowych koni czystej krwi arabskiej uczestniczących w krajowych pokazach [Estimation of the Influence of Genetic and Non-Genetic Factors on the Level of Conformation Traits of Purebred Arabian Horses Participating in National Shows]. Ann. UMCS, Sec. EE, 21(50), 387-395 [in Polish].

    • Karty sędziowania Polskich Narodowych Pokazów Koni Arabskich Czystej Krwi 1985-2006, Wiosennych Młodzieżowych Pokazów Koni czystej Krwi Arabskiej 1988-2006 oraz Czempionatu Koni Arabskich w Falborku w latach 2004-2005 [Judging Cards of Polish National Purebred Arabian Horse Shows in the Years 1985-2006, Youth Arabian Horse Shows in the years 1985-2006 also Falborek Arabian Horse Show, organized in 2004 and 2005] [in Polish].

    • Katalogi Polskich Narodowych i Wiosennych Młodzieżowych Pokazów Koni Arabskich Czystej Krwi z lat 1985-2006 [Catalogues of the Polish National and Youth Arabian Horse Shows in the Years 1985-2006] [in Polish].

    • Kownacki M., 1982. Uwarunkowania genetyczne cech użytkowych u koni [Genetic Conditioning of Performance Traits in Horses]. Zesz. Probl. Post. Nauk Rol., 264, 449-465 [in Polish].

    • Maciejowski J., Zięba J., 1982. Genetyka zwierząt i metody hodowlane [Animal Genetics and Breeding Methods]. PWN, Warszawa [in Polish].

    • Pruski W., 1983. Dwa wieki polskiej hodowli koni arabskich (1778-1978) i jej sukcesy na świecie [Two Centuries of Polish Arabian Horse Breeding (1778-1978) and its Successes throughout the World]. PWRiL, Warszawa [in Polish].

 

end

 


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